Common water problems

Hard water

In everyday language, hard water contains a lot of lime, which is due to high levels of calcium and magnesium. The hardness is measured in German degrees of hardness, and the limit is set at 15°dH or more. Hard water is not dangerous to drink but causes white coatings on glass and porcelain and lime deposits in kitchen appliances, shortening their lifespan.


Iron and manganese are commonly found in drilled wells. This causes the water to have a brown/yellowish tint and it may taste and smell differently. Stained laundry is a common problem, and tiles and porcelain, such as toilets and bathtubs, can get yellow coatings.

Salty water

If your water tastes salty, it is due to high levels of sodium chloride. This is mainly found in coastal areas as seawater leaks into the well. Excessively high levels can cause damage to the pipeline network and accelerate rusting.


If your drinking water contains levels of hydrogen sulfide, it will emit a very foul smell, similar to rotten eggs. The gas is not directly harmful to humans but can cause changes in taste and symptoms such as dizziness and headaches.

Acidic Water

Acidic water indicates a low pH value, giving the water so-called aggressive properties. The risk of corrosion attacks on pipe and water systems increases, which can lead to the breakdown of copper pipes and deposits. In the worst case, the pipes can be corroded, and metal residues then come out in the drinking water, which can cause stomach problems

Humic substances

Humus consists of organic substances and is due to surface water penetrating into the well, affecting the water's color by giving it a yellow and cloudy tone. [5] Humus is not dangerous but can negatively affect both taste and smell, which can make it unpleasant to drink.


One of the most common problems with well water is the emergence of bacteria. A common bacterium is Escherichia coli (E. coli), which occurs due to contamination from sewage or manure. If one's drinking water contains E. coli, it can make one very ill with symptoms such as abdominal pain and vomiting. If this occurs, the water must be boiled before use, and the well must be sanitized.


Influence from fertilizers or leakage from sewage can result in high levels of nitrate. The presence of nitrate in our drinking water is regularly checked as it is dangerous and can impair our oxygen uptake capacity. The risk is greater in children, and therefore water with levels of nitrate should not be given to infants.